• Ambrose Teru Patrick Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola Adamawa State-Nigeria


Objective: The antioxidant of methanolic stem-bark extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus on indomethacin-induced ulcer in albino rats was studied. Methods: Phytochemicals in the bark extract were qualitatively and quantitatively determined. Antioxidant status of the extract was determined using DPPH, FRAP and TBARS assays. The activities of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase effects were also determined along with total protein concentration in the stomach tissue homogenate. Thirty five (35) adult male rats were randomly divided into seven groups (Group A-G) of five rats each. The in-vitro antioxidant status of the extract was also determined. Indomethacin was orally administered as a single dose of 30 mg/kg/b.w to induce ulcer in the rats. The rats were fasted for 24 hrs, on the last day of the experiment before the animals were sacrificed. Macroscopic examinations of the stomach, quantification of gastric juice, homogenization of stomach were also carried out. The stomach homogenate of treated rats was analyzed for total protein (TP), lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Results: Indomethacin treatment caused significant increases (p˂ 0.05) in ulcer index. The administration of the methanolic stem-bark extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus, rats previously treated with indomethacin showed significant reduction in ulcer index, volumes of gastric juice, free and total acidity, pepsin activity and lipid peroxidation in the extract treated rats compared with the group treated with indomethacin. Treatments with P. erinaceus extract showed significant dose dependent elevation (p˂ 0.05) of pH of gastric juice, total protein, GR, SOD and CAT in the treated animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the plant extract may have antioxidant potentials suggesting that P. erinaceus stem bark extract at doses used have the ability to reduce gastric acid secretion and healing of the ulcer.Keywords: Antioxidant, Effect, Albino rats, Ulcer, Stem-bark Extracts, phytochemical and Indomethacin

Author Biography

Ambrose Teru Patrick, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola Adamawa State-Nigeria

Research Assistant, Biochemistry Department



Abubakar, K., Halilu, M. E., Jimoh, A. O., and Hudu, A. S. (2011). Preliminary phytochemical and anti-fungal screening of aqueous extracts of the leaves of the Pterocarpus erinaceus. Journal of Pharmacology, 3: 40-43.

Adeniyi, B, A., Olegbayo, J. A., Lawa, T. O., Odabo, G. N., Okolo, C., Ola, S. O. et al. (2012). Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among dyspepsia patients in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6 (14): 3399-3402.

Adetuyi, A. O., Pandey, R., Babu, K. S., Rao, J. M. (2012). 3, 9-Dimethoxypterocarpin [(-) – Homopterous carpin], a flavonoids isolated from the red dye extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus plant. Journal Chemical Society of Nigeria, 37 (1):123-128.

Agrawal, A. K., Rao, C. V., Sairam, K., Josh, V. K. and Goel, R. K. (2000). ‘‘Effect of piper longum Linn, Zingiber officinale Linn and Ferula species on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats.’’ Indian Journal of Experiment Biology, 38: 994-998.

Akram, M., Shahab-Uddia., Ahmed, A., Usmanghani, K., Hannan, A. and Mohiuddin, E. (2010). Peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori eradication. A review article. International Journal of Medical Science, 2:370-375.

Aliyu, M. and Chedi, B.A.Z. (2010). Effects of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus poir (Fabaceae) on some isolated smooth muscles. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3 (1): 34-38.

Aliyu, A. B., Musa, A. M., Oshanimi, J. A., Ibrahim, H. A., and Oyewale, A.O. (2008). Phytochemical analysis and mineral elements composition of some medicinal plants of Northern. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 7 (1):119-125.

Aliyu, M., Salawu, O. A., Wannang, N. N., Yaro, A. H. and Bichi, L. A. (2005). ‘‘ Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus in Mice and Rats’’ Nigerian Journal of Pharmacology Research, 4 (2): 12-17.

Ambrose Teru Patrick., Faith, P. S. and Umaru, H. A. (2015). The Effects of crude extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on some lipid profile parameters in high fat fed rats. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 5 (18): 123-127.

Bandyopadhyay, D., Biswas, K., Bhattacharyya, M., Reiter, R. J. and

Banerjee, R. H. (2001) Gastric toxicity and mucosal ulceration induced by oxygen-derived reactive species, protection by melatonin. Current Molecular Medicine, 1: 501-513.

Banerjee, D., Chakrabarti, S., Hazra, A. K., Banerjee, S., Ray, J. and

Mukherjee, B. (2008). ‘‘Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of some mangroves in urdarbans’’ African Journal of Biotechnology, 7: 805-810.

Bannister, J. Bannister, W. (1987). Aspect of the structure, function and application of superoxide dismutase. CRC Critical Review in Biochemistry, 22 (2): 111-80

Bashinskaya, B. (2011). “Trends in Peptic Ulcer Disease and the Identification of Helicobacter Pylori as a Causative Organism: Population-based Estimates from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample.†Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, 3 (4):366–370.

Borrelli, F. & Izzo, A. A. (2000). The Plant kingdom as a source of anti-cancer remedies Phytother Research, 14 (8): 581-591.

Borrelli, F. and Izzo, A. A. (2001). The Plant kingdom as a source of anti-cancer remedies Phytother Research, 53: 82-88.

Brodie, D., Marshal, R. and Moreno. O. (2006). “Effect of restraint on gastric acidity in the ratâ€, American journal of physiology, 202: 812-814.

Baxter, R.A.(2008). Anti-aging properties of resveratrol: review and report of a potent new antioxidant skin care formulation, Journal of Cosmetics Dermatology, 7: 2-7.

Castellani, R.J., Lee, H.G., Perry, G., Smith, M.A. (2006). Antioxidant protection and neurodegenerative disease: The role of amyloid-β and tau. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 21(23): 126-130.

Dai, S. and Ogle, C. W. (2005). ‘‘Histamine H2 receptor blockade: Effect on methacholine induced gastric secretion in rats.’’ IRCS Medical Science, 32: 61-65.

Das, S., Dutta, S. and Deka, S. (2008). A study of the antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidum guajava on experimentally animal models. The internet Journal of Pharmacology, 7:1.

Dashputre, N.L., Naikwade, N.S. (2011). Evaluation of Anti-Ulcer Activity of Methanolic Extract of Abutilon indicum Linn Leaves in Experimental Rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 3 (2): 97-100.

Deshpande, S. S., Shah, G. B. & Parmar, N. S. (2003). Anti-ulcer activity of Tephrosia purpurea in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 35 (3): 168-172.

Engler, M. B, Engler, M.M. (2004). The vascular protective effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and Chocolate. Nut Res., 24: 695–706.

Frericks, C.T., Tillotson, I.G., Hayman, J.M. (1950). The effect of rutin on capillary fragility and permeability. Journal of Laboratory Clinical Medicine, 35(6): 933–939.

Gega-Adebayo, G. I., Igbokwa, V. U., Shafe, M. O., Akintaiyo, C. O., and Mbaka, D. I. (2013). Antiulcer effect of Ocimum gratissimum on indomethacin induced ulcer and percentage of superoxide dismutase on Wister rats. Journal of medicine and Medical Science, 4 (1): 8-12.

Gelb, A. & Wilson, J. (2002). Free radicals, antioxidant and neurologic injury: possible relationship to cerebral protection by anaesthetics. Journal of Neurosurgical Anaesthesiology, 14 (1): 66-79.

Goel, R. K., Chakrabarti, A. and Sanyal, A. K. (2000). ‘‘The effect of biological variables on the anti-ulcerogenic effect of vegetable plantain banana’’ Plantation Medicinal, 51: 85-88.

Gorinstein, S., Yamamota, K., Katrich, E., Leontowkz, H., Lojek, A., Leontowicz, M. et al. (2003). Antioxidative properties of Jaffa sweeties and grapefruit and their influence on lipid metabolism and plasma antioxidative potentials in rats. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 67 (4): 907-910.

Goyal, R. K. & Sairam, K. (2002). Antiulcer drugs from indigenous sources with emphasis on Musa sapientum, tamrabhasma, Asparagus racemosus and Zingiber officinale. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 34: 100-110.

Guo, Ch., Yang, J., Wei, J., Li, Y., Xu, J. and Jiang, Y. (2003). Antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of common fruits as determined by FRAP assay. Nut Res., 23: 1719-1726.

Harborne, J. B. (1984). Phytochemical Methods-A guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis 2nd Edition New York Chapman and Hall, 5 (10).

Harborne, J. B. (1973). Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Technique of plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall: London, 49-188.

Hassall, E. (2001). Peptic ulcer disease and current approaches to Helicobacter pylori Journal of Paediatrics, 138:462-8.

Ishige, K., Schubert, D and Sagara, Y. (2001). Flavonoids protect neuronal cells from oxidative stress by three distinct mechanisms. Free Radical and Biological Medicine, 30: 433-446.

Iacopini, P., Baldi, M., Storchi, P., Sebastiani, L. (2008). Catechin, epicatechin, rutin and resveratrol in red grape: Content, in vitro antioxidant activity and interactions. Journal of Food Composition Analysis, 21: 589-598.

Jiang, R.W., Laua, K.M., Hona, P.M., Makb, T.C.W., Wooc, K.S., Fung, K.P. (2005). Chemistry and biological activities of caffeic acid derivatives from Salvia Miltiorrhiza. Curr Medical Chemistry, 12: 237-246.

Kaneto, H., Kajimoto, Y., Miyagawa, J., Matsuoka, T., Fujitani, Y., Umayahara, Y., Hanafusa, T., Matsuzawa, Y., Yamasaki, Y., Hori, M. (1999). Beneficial effects of antioxidants in diabetes possible protection of pancreatic bcells against glucose toxicity. Diabetes, 48: 2398-2406.

Lamson, D.W., Matthew, S., and Brignall, M.S. (2000). Antioxidants and Cancer III: Quercetin. Alternative Medicinal Review, 5(3): 196-208.

Liu, D., Shi, J., Ibarra, A.C., Kakuda, Y., Xue, S.J. (2008). The scavenging capacity and synergistic effects of lycopene, vitamin E, vitamin C, and β-carotene mixtures on the DPPH free radical. LWT., 41: 1344-1349.

Jing-Chung, C., Jan-Ying, Y., Pei-Chun, C. and Cheng-Kuang, H. (2007). “Phenolic Content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of yam-containing surimi gels influenced by salt and heating.†Asian Journal of Health and Information Sciences, 2 (1-4): 1-11.

Kawakubo, M., Ito, Y., Okimura, Y., Kobayashi, M., Sakura, K., and Kasama, S, et al. (2004). Natural antibiotic function of a human gastric mucin against helicobacter pylori infection. Science, 305: 1003-1006.

Kim, Y. H. (2002). “Long-term stress and Helicobacter pylori infection independently induce gastric mucosal lesions in C57BL/6 mice.†Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 37 (11):1259–64.

Kishore, D. V., Pinto, J., Mini, K. V. (2011). Anti-ulcer activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Sapindus trifoliatus L. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6 (1): 25-27.

Kulkarni, S. K. (2010). Handbook of experimental pharmacology. 3rd ed. Delhi: Vallabh.

Kumar, A. V. S., Jonnalagadda, V. P. Joy, J. M., Prathyusha, S., Lakshmi, M. (2013). Pharmacognostic, phytochemical and pharmacology evaluation for the antiulcer activity of Poly herbal suspension. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2:128-35.

Leonie, M. B., Heloina, D. F., Jacqueline, A. L., Jose, M. B., Petronio, F. D., Maria, C. O., et al. (2005). Gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer activity of alkaloids: A review. Molecules, 13: 3198-3223.

Leonie, M. B., Neyes, Z. T., Heloina, D. F., Isis, F. G., Thiago, J. D., Gedson, R.D. et al. (2012). Tannins, peptic ulcers and related mechanism. International Journal of Molecular Science, 13:3203-3228.

Manan, M. J. A., Khan, M., Safwan, A. K. M., Hussain, S. A. and Zakaria, Z. A. (2011). Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa stems barks ethanolic extract in rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5 (3): 354-359.

Modibbo, A. A. and Nadro, M. S. (2012). Hepatoprotective effects of Cassia italica leaf extracts on carbon Tetrachloride-induced Jaundice. Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2: 382-387.

Mota, K. S. (2009). “Flavonoids with gastroprotective activity.’’ Molecules, 314 (3): 979- 1012.

Nadro, M. S., Modibbo, A. A. (2014). Effects of Pterocarpus erinaceus stem bark aqueous extract on anaemic rats. Scientific Research Journal (scrip), 2 (5): 1-5.

Nakamura, C., Michiro, O., Masaru, O., Marid, J., Noriaki, K., Youhei, H., et al. (2003). Rolipram, a specific type iv phosphodiesterase inhibitor, ameliorates indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Molecular Biology Cell, 4 (3):1109-24.

Olaleye, M. T., Ojo, C. T. and Adetuyi, A. O. (2013). Evaluation of the anti-ulcerogenic properties of Ethanolic extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus and Homopterocarpin against aspirin induced ulcer in albino rats. FUTA Journal of Research in Sciences, 1: 135-146.

Ouedraogo, N., Tibiri, A., Sawadogo, R. W., Lompo, M., Hay, A. E., Koudou, J. et al. (2011). Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of aqueous extracts from stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceous. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5 (10): 2047-2053.

Rodriguez-Porcel, M., Herrman, J., Chade, A.R., Krier, J.D., Breen, J.F., Lerman, A., Lerman, L.O. (2004). Long-term antioxidant intervention improves myocardial micro vascular function in experimental hypertension. Hypertension, 43: 493-498.

Suja, P. R., Anuradha, C. V., Viswanathan, P. (2002). Gastrointestinal effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 8: 393-397.

Suleyman, H., Albayrak, A., Bilici, M., Cadirci, E. and Halici, Z. (2010). Different mechanisms in formation and prevention of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. Inflammation, 33:224-234.

Thring, T.S., Hili, P., Naughton, D.P. (2011). Antioxidant and potential anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and formulations of white tea, rose, and witch hazel on primary human dermal fibroblast cells. Journal of Inflammation, 8 (27): 1-7.

UBRBDA, (2005). Upper Benue River Basin Development Authority, Annual Book Report, Nigeria.




How to Cite

Patrick, A. T. (2018). ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC STEM-BARK EXTRACT OF PTEROCARPUS ERINACEUS ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION. Innoriginal: International Journal of Sciences, 33–38. Retrieved from