PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION, IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT CAPABILITIES AND IMMUNOMODULATORY INDICES OF EXTRACTS OF XYLOPIA AETHIOPICA FRUIT
AbstractBackground: Recently, there is increased interest in the scientific investigations of botanicals with immunomodulatory capabilities due to the alleged efficacy in achieving quality health. Xylopia aethiopica fruit is a popular recipe employed in brewing of soup/broth in the southern region of Nigeria and some parts of Africa.Objective: This study determined the effect of solvent partitioning on the phyto-constituents, in vitro antioxidative activities and immunomodulatory potentials of Xylopia aethiopica fruit extracts (crude ethanolic extract, aqueous and n-hexane partitioned extracts).Materials and methods: The phyto-constituents in the extracts were determined by colorimetric test, while in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the radical scavenging abilities, metal ion chelating potential and reducing potential of the extracts and the immunomodulatory potentials were evaluated by the carbon clearance capability, avidity of neutrophil, inhibition of cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and zinc sulphate turbidity test. The extracts were tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight and levamisole was used as the standard drug.Results: Various phyto-constituents such as and terpenoids indicated marked reactions and recorded increases (p<0.05) in the crude ethanol extract than the partitioned extracts. Consequentially, the crude ethanol extract presented the least EC50 of the DPPH radical scavenging activity and metal ion chelating potential. In the same vein, the crude ethanol extract, as well as levamisole increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the blood to nylon fibre (p<0.05). The phagocytic index recorded increases (p<0.05) in the fruit extracts. Cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia was inhibited (p<0.05) by the standard drug and all the extracts of X. aethiopica.Conclusion: The results indicated that the crude ethanol extract exhibited most impressive antioxidant activity and also, improved immunoactivities than the levamisole and partitioned extracts. Therefore, the consumption of X. aethiopica fruit in soup/broth brewing, as well as alcoholic tincture is recommended for improved quality life.Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Immunomodulation, Improved quality life, Phyto-constituents, Phagocytic index, Xylopia aethiopica.
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