• Oyewo, Emmanuel Bukoye
  • Oso, Babatunde Joseph Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria.
  • Oladiji, Adenike Temidayo Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria


Background: Recently, there is increased interest in the scientific investigations of botanicals with immunomodulatory capabilities due to the alleged efficacy in achieving quality health. Xylopia aethiopica fruit is a popular recipe employed in brewing of soup/broth in the southern region of Nigeria and some parts of Africa.Objective: This study determined the effect of solvent partitioning on the phyto-constituents, in vitro antioxidative activities and immunomodulatory potentials of Xylopia aethiopica fruit extracts (crude ethanolic extract, aqueous and n-hexane partitioned extracts).Materials and methods: The phyto-constituents in the extracts were determined by colorimetric test, while in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the radical scavenging abilities, metal ion chelating potential and reducing potential of the extracts and the immunomodulatory potentials were evaluated by the carbon clearance capability, avidity of neutrophil, inhibition of cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and zinc sulphate turbidity test. The extracts were tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight and levamisole was used as the standard drug.Results: Various phyto-constituents such as and terpenoids indicated marked reactions and recorded increases (p<0.05) in the crude ethanol extract than the partitioned extracts. Consequentially, the crude ethanol extract presented the least EC50 of the DPPH radical scavenging activity and metal ion chelating potential. In the same vein, the crude ethanol extract, as well as levamisole increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the blood to nylon fibre (p<0.05). The phagocytic index recorded increases (p<0.05) in the fruit extracts. Cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia was inhibited (p<0.05) by the standard drug and all the extracts of X. aethiopica.Conclusion: The results indicated that the crude ethanol extract exhibited most impressive antioxidant activity and also, improved immunoactivities than the levamisole and partitioned extracts. Therefore, the consumption of X. aethiopica fruit in soup/broth brewing, as well as alcoholic tincture is recommended for improved quality life.Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Immunomodulation, Improved quality life, Phyto-constituents, Phagocytic index, Xylopia aethiopica.

Author Biographies

Oyewo, Emmanuel Bukoye

Department of Biochemistry,    Ladoke Akintola University of Technology,    P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

Oso, Babatunde Joseph, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria. 

Oladiji, Adenike Temidayo, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria

Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria


Abdel-Hameed, E.S. (2009). Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activity of certain Egyptian Ficus species leaf samples Food Chemistry, 114: 1271–1277.

Aggarwal, B. B., Shishodia, S., Sandur, S. K., Pandey, M. K., Sethi, G. (2006). Inflammation and cancer: how hot is the link? Biochemical Pharmacology, 72: 1605-1621.

Antolovich, M., Prenzler, P., Robards, K., Ryan, D. (2000). Sample preparation in the determination of phenolic compounds in fruits. Analyst, 125(5): 989-1009.

Ayinde, B.A., Onwukaeme, D.N., Omogbai, E.K.I. (2007). Isolation and characterization of two phenolics compounds from the stem bark of Musangacecropiodes R. brown (Moraceae) acta Pol. Pharm, 64: 183-185.

Azeb, T., Felipe, S., Shamnon, E. J. (2004). Stabilization of red blood cell membranes by thalidomide in vitro. Immunopharm.Immunotoxicol. 26(4): 501-509.

Bafna, A. R. and Mishra S.H. (2005). Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn.Ars. Pharm., 46: 253-262.

Ben-Efraim, S. (2001). Immunomodulating anticancer alkylating drugs targets and mechanisms of activity. Curr. Drug Targ., 2: 197-212.

Burkill, H.M. (1985). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Families A-D, Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Carrasco, F. R., Schmidt, G., Romero, A. L., Sartoretto, J. L., Caparroz-Assef, S. M., Bersani-Amado, C. A., Cuman, R. K.( 2009). Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 61(7): 961-7.

Chan, M. M. (1995). Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor by curcumin, a phytochemical. Biochem. Pharmacol., 49:1551-1556.

Chang, C. P., Chang, J. Y., Wang, F.Y., Chang, J. G. (1995). The effect of Chinese medicinal herb Zingiberis rhizoma extract on cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 48:13-19.

Chang, M.J., Collins, J.L., Baily, J.W., Coffey, D.L. (1994). Tannins related to cultivar, maturity, dehulling and heating. J. Food Sci., 59:1034–1036.

Clement, F., Pramod, S. N., Venkatesh, Y. P. (2010). Identity of the immunomodulatory proteins from garlic (Allium sativum) with the major garlic lectins or agglutinins. Int. Immunopharmacol., 10(3): 316-324.

Delfanian, M., Kenari, R.E., Sahari, M.A. (2015). Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extract. Food Sci. Nutri., 3(3): 179-187.

Dinis, T.C.P., Madeira, V.M.C., Almeidam, L.M. (1994). Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 315, 161.

Ezekwesili, C.N., Nwodo, O.F.C., Eneh, F.U, Ogbunugafor, H.A. (2010). Investigation of the chemical composition and biological activity of Xylopia aethiopica Dunal (Annonacae) African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(43): 7352-7356.

Fall, D., Badiane, M., Ba D., Loiseau, P., Bories, C., Gleye, C., Laurens, A., Hocquemiller, R. (2003). Antiparasitic activities of Senegalese Annonacae used in traditional medicine. Dakar Med., 48(2): 112-116.

Fiebich, B. L., Heinrich, M., Hiller, K. O., Kammerer, N. (2001). Inhibition of TNF-alpha synthesis in LPS stimulated primary human monocytes by Harpagophytum extract SteiHap 69. Phytomedicine, 8:28-30.

Fulzele, S.V., Satturwar, P.M., Joshi, S.B., Dorle, A.K. (2003). Study of the immunomodulatory activity of Haridadi ghrita in rats.Indian. Journal of Pharmacology, 35: 51-54.

Ghorai, N., Chakraborty, S., Gucchait, S., Saha, S. K., Biswas, S. (2012). Estimation of total Terpenoids concentration in plant tissues using a monoterpene, Linalool as standard reagent. Clin. Chem. Acta., 31: 87.

Ghule, B.V., Murugananthan, G., Yeole, P.G. (2006). Immunostimulant effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Leaves, Journal of Ethnopharmacolog., 108, 311-315.

Gokhale, A.B., Damre, A.S., Saraf, M.N. (2003). Investigations into immunomodulatory activity of Argyreia speciosa. J. Ethnopharmacol., 84: 109-14.

Gyamfi, M.A., Yonamine, M., Aaniya, Y. (1999). Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: thonningia sanguine on experimentally induced liver injuries. General Pharmacology., 32: 661-667.

Hajra, S., Mehta, A., Pandey, P. (2012). Immunostimulating Activity of Methanolic Extract of Swietenia mahagoni Seeds. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4 (1): 122.

Hamberger, M., Hastettman, K. (1991). Bioactivity in plants: the link between phytochemistry and medicine. Phytochem. 30: 3864-3874.

Ismail, S., Asad, M. (2009). Immunomodulatory activity of Acacia catechu Indian. J. Physiol Pharmacol; 53 (1) : 25–33.

Jayathirtha, M.G., Mishra S. H. (2004). Preliminary immunomodulatory activities of methanolic extracts of Eclipta albaand Centella asiatica. Phytomedi., 11: 361-65.

Kasper, L.H, Haque, A., Haque, J. (2007) Regulatory mechanisms of the immune system in multiple sclerosis. T regulatory cells: turned on to turn off. J. Neurol., 254 (1): 10–14

Miliauskas, G., Venskutonis, P.R., van Beek, T.A. (2004). Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extarcts. Food Chem 85: 231-237.

Motrin, A. (2005) Antinflammatory effects of oil. Nature, 437: 45-46.

Obdoni, B.O., Ochuko, P.O. (2001). Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some Homostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Global J. Pure Appl. Sci. 8 b:203-208.

Ogunkunle, A.T.S., Ladejobi, T.A. (2006). Ethnobotanical and phytochemical studies on some species of Senna in Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5(21): 2020-2023.

Okeke, C.U., Elekwa, I. (2003). Phytochemical study of the extract of Gongronema latifolium Benth. J. Health and Vis. Sci., 5(1): 47-55.

Oso, B.J., Oyewo, E.B., Oladiji A.T. (2017). Ethanolic, n-hexane and aqueous partitioned extracts of Xylopia aethiopica fruit modulated inflammatory responses in turpentine oil induced acute inflammation in male Wistar rats. Int. J. Res. Health Sci., 2017; 5(2): 1-10.

Oyaizu, M. (1986). Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxidant activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. J. Nutrition. 44: 307-315.

Oyewo, E. B., Adetutu, A., Adebisi, J.A., Olorunnisola, O.S., Adesokan, A.A. (2013). Sub-chronic administration of Febi super bitters triggered inflammatory responses in male Wistar rats. J. of Med. Sci. (Online).

Oyewo, E. B., Adekunle, A.S., Afolabi, O.K., Ige, P.T., Akanji, M.A. (2017). Palm Wine and Orijin Bitters Severed Hyperlipidemia and Immunomodulatory Responses in Atherogenic-diet Fed Male Wistar Rats. American Journal of Food Science and Health, 3(6): 106-122.

Parkin, J., Cohen B (2001) An overview of the immune system. The Lancet, 357: 1777–89.

Pfeiffer, N. E., McGuire, T. C., Bendel, R. B., Weikel, J. M. (1977). Quantification of bovine immunoglobulins: comparison of single radial immunodiffusion, zinc sulfate turbidity, serum electrophoresis and refractometer methods. Amer. J. Vet. Res., 38: 693-698.

Prieto, P., Pineda, M., Aguilar, M. (1999). Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex, Specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Analytical Biochemistry, 269, 337–341.

Rahman, K. (2007). Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2: 219-236.

Shukla, S., Mehta, A., John, J., Mehta P., Vyas, S.P., Shukla, S. (2009). Immunomodulatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. J. Ethanopharmacol., 125(2):252 -6.

Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology, 299: 152-178.

Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd ed.. Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria.

Srisilam, K, Sumalatha, D. V., Thilagam, E., Veeresham, C. (2000). Immunomodulators from higher plants, Indian J. Nat. Prod., 20, 3-15.

Tairu, A.O., Hofmann, T., Schieberle, P. (1999). Identification of the key aroma compounds in dried fruit of Xylopia aethiopica. In: J. Janick (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA. pp. 474–478.

Thatte, U. M., Chhabria, S., Karandikar, S. M., Dahanukar, S. A. (1987). Protective effects of Indian medicinal plants against cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia, Journal of Post graduate Medicine, 33: 185-188.

Tijani, M., Bello, I., Aluyu, A., Olurishe, T., Maidawa, S., Habila, J., Balogun, E. (2009). Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of root extract of Cochlospermum tinctorium. Res. J. med. Plants, 3: 16-22

Trease, G.E., Evans, M.C. (2005). Pharmacognosy 14th ed., Elsevier, New Delhi, India. pp 53, 431 and 512.

Wichers, M.C., Maes, M., (2004). The role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the pathophysiology of interferon-α-induced depression. J. Psychiatry Neurosci., 29 (1), 11–17.

Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T., Jianming, W. (1999). The determination of flavonoids contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on super oxides radicals. Food Chem., 64:555-559.



How to Cite

Bukoye, O. E., Joseph, O. B., & Temidayo, O. A. (2018). PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION, IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT CAPABILITIES AND IMMUNOMODULATORY INDICES OF EXTRACTS OF XYLOPIA AETHIOPICA FRUIT. Innoriginal: International Journal of Sciences, 20–25. Retrieved from