BIODIVERSITY OF ACTINOMYCETES AND SECONDARY METABOLITES -A REVIEW.
AbstractActinomycetes are widely distributed in different habitats and involved in important processes. Therefore, evaluation of their distribution is important in understanding their ecological role veryÂ differentÂ viewsÂ ofÂ actinobacterialÂ diversity emergeÂ fromÂ this paper.ThereÂ isÂ aÂ tremendous diversity andÂ novelty among theÂ marine actino-mycetes present in marine environments. Progress has been made toÂ isolate novel actinomycetes fromÂ samples collected at different environments and habitats which include soil, rhizosphere soil, hypersaline soil,marine sediments, earthworm casting, goat faeces , desert, caves and honey bee gut. Among microorganisms, actinomycetes are enthralling resource due to their ability to produce novel bioactive secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activities. They have proven to be an inexhaustive mine of antimicrobial agents, especially those potent against pathogenic organisms. Microbial secondary metabolites, especially those from actinomycetes have been a phenomenal success for the discovery of novel drugs. They produce a wide range of secondary metabolites like antibiotics, pigments, enzymes, anti inflammatory substances and endophenamines and more than 70% of the naturally derived antibiotics are currently in clinical use. They remain a fundamental source of new chemical diversity and an important part of drug discovery. This chapter highlight the bioactive metabolites produces by actinomycetes and their habitats.
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